We propose a novel method for the localization and navigation of multiple mobile robots. Our method uses coded light superimposed onto a visual image and projected onto the robots. Robots localize their position by receiving and decoding the projected light, and can follow a target using the coded velocity vector field.
Localization and navigation information can be independently conveyed in each pixel, and we can change this information over time. Thus, the system does not require measurement devices such as cameras, nor does it incur a high communication load, because we implement the localization and navigation of the robots through projection. Further, the spatial deviation between the images and robots does not occur in principle.
The idea of controlling robots by using information embedded in projected images allows users to design an integrated environment easily for the physical robots and digital images. Our findings have implications in various fields such as game environments and tangible interfaces, and we expect our proposed method to contribute to computer entertainment and user interface applications.




  • Takefumi Hiraki, Shogo Fukushima, and Takeshi Naemura:
    ``Projection-based Localization and Navigation Method for Multiple Mobile Robots with Pixel-level Visible Light Communication,”
    In Proceedings of the 2016 IEEE/SICE International Symposium on System Integration (SII 2016), pp.862–868 (2016.12).
  • Takefumi Hiraki, Shogo Fukushima, and Takeshi Naemura:
    ``Phygital Field: an Integrated Field with a Swarm of Physical Robots and Digital Images,”
    In ACM SIGGRAPH Asia 2016 Emerging Technologies, Talk (SA ’16), Article No.2 (2016.12).
  • Takefumi Hiraki, Issei Takahashi, Shotaro Goto, Shogo Fukushima, and Takeshi Naemura:
    ``Phygital Field: Integrated Field with Visible Images and Robot Swarm Controlled by Invisible Images,”
    In ACM SIGGRAPH 2015 Posters (SIGGRAPH ’15), Article No.85 (2015.8).


  • METI Innovative Technologies 2016 (“Phygital Field”), (2016.10).
  • IEICE MVE Award (Best Paper Award) (Takefumi Hiraki, Issei Takahashi, Shogo Fukushima, and Takeshi Naemura: “Controlling Swarms of Robots using a PVLC Projector,”), (2015.10).